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Leading members of the SS. On 25 July Engelbert Dollfuss , pictured , governing Austria as dictator without parliament, is assassinated by a group of Austrian Nazis. Dollfuss has opposed the Nazis in Austria, banning them as well as other parties in On 3 September the annual rally of the Nazi Party begins at Nuremberg, lasting until 10 September. On 23 January ninety percent of the electors vote for a re-union of the Saar with Germany instead of remaining under French control. The referendum is supervised by the League of Nations.

The Saar becomes German on 1 March. On 16 March Germany renews universal military conscription, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

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Get e-book The Winter Years of World War II: Life in Hitlers Third Reich

It eases the restrictions imposed on Germany after the First World War and regulates the size of the German navy in relation to the Royal Navy. On 15 September Hitler proclaims the antisemitic Nuremberg Laws at the annual party rally of the Nazis. The first prohibits marriages and relationships between Jews and Germans; the second strips Jews of their German citizenship. On 7 March the German army reoccupies the Rhineland, which has been demilitarised since the Treaty of Versailles.

On 25 October Hitler and Mussolini sign a treaty of friendship, preparing the way for the Rome-Berlin Axis that would later become an alliance in May Three months later Italy withdraws from the League of Nations.

What If Hitler Had Won?

The travelling exhibition promotes Nazi stereotypes of Jews through photographs and links Jews with bolshevism. Three years later, in , a Nazi propaganda film is made with the same name. All Jewish organisations lose their official status. From 14 June , all businesses owned or run by Jews have to be registered and marked as Jewish. On 15 June , any Jew previously convicted of a crime, even petty criminal offences, are arrested and taken to the concentration camps at Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen. Between 6 July and 15 July , representatives of 32 states and 24 voluntary organisations meet in Evian-les-Bains, France, to discuss the international refugee problem.

The names must be registered at the registry office and used on all official documents.

History of Poland (1939–1945)

Czechoslovakia is not invited to attend the conference, but the main European powers — Britain, France, Italy and Germany — take part. The settlement cedes the Sudetenland to Germany, provided that Germany will raise no further territorial demands. This prevents Jews attempting to emigrate to Switzerland by pretending to be Christians.

On 28 October , approximately 18, Jews living in Germany but holding Polish passports are expelled to the Polish border. The Poles refuse to accept them and they remain stranded in the town of Zbaszyn. During the night of November , a pogrom, organised by the Nazis, takes place against Jews throughout Germany and annexed Austria. Synagogues are desecrated and destroyed, and Jewish owned shops are looted and ransacked.

As of 15 November , Jewish children are no longer permitted to attend German schools.

Cameron Addis, Ph.D.

They have to attend special Jewish schools. In a letter dated 1 September , Hitler authorises the euthanasia of adults as part of Operation T-4 to eliminate mentally and physically disabled children and adults from the Third Reich. The program was officially ended in August , but in reality the killing continued until During the years of the Nazi regime, the Sinti and Roma, like the Jews, were persecuted and murdered.

This photograph of a young Sinti or Roma woman held at Auschwitz was taken by the SS for their files. The assassination fails, Elsner is arrested and imprisoned in Sachsenhausen and Dachau, where he is killed in April From 23 November , all Jews in Poland are forced to wear an armband depicting a Star of David whenever they are in public.

The invasion signals the beginning of the Winter War, lasting until 13 March On 30 April the Jewish Ghetto in Lodz is sealed off from the rest of the city — all non-Jewish inhabitants have to leave and guards are put in place. In nine days, over , troops were evacuated. This picture shows German soldiers and policemen inspecting Dunkirk after the evacuation. On 7 September , the German air raids of Great Britain begin.

Known as the Blitz, the bombing lasts until May It defines as Jewish any person with three Jewish grandparents or, if the spouse is Jewish as well, two Jewish grandparents. The Warsaw Ghetto is the largest of the Jewish ghettos set up by the Germans. Established on 16 October it is sealed on 15 November However, the area of the ghetto encompasses only 4. On 1 March the construction of Auschwitz-Birkenau, the second camp of Auschwitz, begins. It soon becomes the most brutal and overcrowded of the camps at Auschwitz.

From 20 to 21 August approximately 4, Jews are deported from Paris to the transit camp at Drancy. From Drancy, French Jews are deported to extermination camps including Auschwitz.

American Restrictions on Immigration

On 15 September , deportations to camps in Transnistria, Western Ukraine begin. Approximately , Bessarabian Jews are deported, and approximately 90, of them die. In total more than , Romanian Jews were murdered during the Holocaust. On approaching a fenced off area they are forced to undress, hand over their valuables and walk forwards in ranks of ten.

When these small groups reach the edge of the ravine, they are shot. Between 29 and 30 September , 33, Jews are shot. The construction of Belzec camp begins in southeast Poland. Four months later the systematic murder of Jews begins in Belzec. On 24 November Theresienstadt is established. It initially serves as a collection and transition camp for Jews from Bohemia and Moravia. Following the Wannsee Conference on 20 January , Theresienstadt is also used as a camp for prominent and elderly Jews from Germany and other European countries.

They forfeit all their belongings and assets in Germany. The American navy incurs heavy losses.

Home front during World War II

On 28 October , the first transport from Theresienstadt in Czechoslovakia arrives at Auschwitz. Several national parliaments issue a joint statement condemning the mass killings Jews by the Nazis in Eastern Europe. On 16 December a decree is passed in Germany stating that all German Sinti and Roma are to be deported to Auschwitz and destroyed. The second photo atop Mt. Suribachi — after reporters on ships off the coast requested a larger flag — became the iconic image of the Pacific War, memorialized as a statue in Arlington Cemetery outside Washington, D.

Next up was Okinawa , the last main island before Japan, about halfway between Taiwan and the southern tip of the Japanese archipelago.


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Just a year after the Normandy Invasion in France, the Battle of Okinawa was the largest amphibious landing in naval history. The island is crisscrossed by rocky escarpments on which Japanese troops strung wire, sited mortar, and fought to the death. Multiple typhoons complicated the operation. Around k Ryukyuan civilians died, many from a mass suicide set off when the Japanese military warned them of how American G. A similar scenario transpired on Saipan earlier, when civilians jumped to their deaths off cliffs. Many mothers killed their own babies rather than let them fall into American hands.

Both islands are very small compared to the main island. Gunners taking aim at kamikazes knew they had to hit their targets or die, along with their shipmates. Usually, that meant drowning or burning to death. Kamikaze pilots with kg bombs in the nose of their planes were soldered into their cockpits and given enough fuel to get out to American ships, but not back. The American fleet amassing for an invasion was anchored beyond the range of round-trip flights, so they were taken off guard at first by the one-way missions.

Since only bachelors could be kamikazes , some pilots killed their families to qualify. Next to boxes marked eager or very eager , they signed in blood. Suicide pilots also steered kaiten torpedoes into American ships under the surface. On land, Japanese soldiers rushed at Americans in swarms with bamboo spears and pistols, while others ran under American tanks with satchel bombs and blew themselves up along with everyone inside.

Hawks in the Japanese Parliament hoped that a protracted war on the main island would compel the U. Fanatics in the military insisted on keeping up the fight. In , they hoped to sail back into San Francisco Bay victorious in three years. Atomic Bombs The U. The history of the bomb traces to the European rather than Pacific war.

Germans split a uranium atom in , releasing million volts of electricity. Physicist Lise Meitner coined the term fission to describe the process. A fissile material, such as Uranium, is one capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Splitting the nucleus of an atom is like opening an oven door. The U. Army Corps of Engineers put Lt.

The British had shared some of their knowledge of atomic power with the U.